All About Malaysia
Malaysia, country of Southeast Asia, lying just north of the Equator, that is composed of two noncontiguous regions: Peninsular Malaysia (Semenanjung Malaysia), also called West Malaysia (Malaysia Barat), which is on the Malay Peninsula, and East Malaysia (Malaysia Timur), which is on the island of Borneo. The Malaysian capital, Kuala Lumpur, lies in the western part of the peninsula, about 25 miles (40 km) from the coast; the administrative centre, Putrajaya, is located about 16 miles (25 km) south of the capital.
Peninsular Malaysia occupies most of the southern segment of the Malay Peninsula. To the north it is bordered by Thailand, with which it shares a land boundary of some 300 miles (480 km). To the south, at the tip of the peninsula, is the island republic of Singapore, with which Malaysia is connected by a causeway and also by a separate bridge. To the southwest, across the Strait of Malacca, is the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. East Malaysia consists of the country’s two largest states, Sarawak and Sabah, and is separated from Peninsular Malaysia by some 400 miles (640 km) of the South China Sea. These two states occupy roughly the northern fourth of the large island of Borneo and share a land boundary with the Indonesian portion (Kalimantan) of the island to the south. Surrounded by Sarawak is a small coastal enclave containing the sultanate of Brunei. Of the country’s total area, which includes about 265 square miles (690 square km) of inland water, Peninsular Malaysia constitutes about 40 percent and East Malaysia about 60 percent.
Malaysia’s history is said to have started from the Sultanate of Malacca which was around 1400 AD. At the time of its glory, the Sultanate Territories covered most of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Malacca emerged as a glorious Government because of its strategic location which was the meeting point between East Asia and the Middle East. This situation allowed Malacca to emerge as a major trading center for spice trade, especially in Southeast Asia. Islam was the main religion which emerged and became the main religion of the residents because the Ruler himself had professed the religion.
In 1511, Malacca fell into the hands of the Portuguese and that was the beginning of the colonial era in Malaya. After that, Malaya fell into the hands of the Dutch in 1641 and British in 1824 through the Anglo–Dutch Treaty. British colonization was the longest compared to others. The British had integrated all the Malayan administration which was previously managed by the Malay Rulers with the help of state dignitaries. The British intervention had aroused dissatisfaction among the local population. Some individuals rise up against the colonial yet it was easily defeated by the British as their efforts were more towards individuality. Among the heroes that went against the colonialists were Dol Said, Tok Janggut, Datuk Bahaman, Rentap, Dato Maharajalela, Rosli Dobi and several others.
During the 1920s and 1930s, many residents of Malaya had started to receive education, either from the Middle East or local education. As a result, this educated group had appeared to fight in the name of nationalism. They used media such as newspapers and magazines to spread their ideology. There were also among them who had formed Associations such as the Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM) and Kesatuan Melayu Singapura (KMS) which were aimed at driving away the invaders and formed their own Government. When the people of this country were so eager to end the invasion, they were jolted by the Japanese landing at the end of 1941 which brought Malaya to another colonial era. Japan had occupied Malaya until 1945 before surrendering as a result of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Japanese resignation has given space to the Communist Party of Malaya (PKM) to control Malaya. PKM has launched attack on Malaya through violence, they had murder three European rubber farm managers in Sungai Siput, Perak.Thus, in June 1948, Sir Edward Gent has declared emergency over Malaya. PKM did not succeed Malaya and the British returned powerful. British Military Administration or BMA is between the end World War II and establishment of the Malayan Union. On 1st April 1946, The British established the Malayan Union. However, this idea got a fight from the Malays for abolition the royal institutions and the Malays privileges.
The emergence of Tunku Abdul Rahman had given a silver lining to the struggle of the Malayan nationalists when his action of forming the Alliance Party had started to open the eyes of British to allow the Malayans to govern their own country. The unity between the three major ethnic groups namely Malays, Chinese and Indians led to the London Agreement that was signed on 8 February 1956 and had given signs that Malaya will achieve independence on 31 August 1957. Upon returning Tunku Abdul Rahman Al-haj from London, Tunku has made a declaration independence of Malaya in Padang Bandar Hilir, Melaka on 20 February 1956. On 27 May 1961, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj has suggested the merger of five colonies namely the Malaya, Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei to form a new country.
On 9 July 1963, representatives of the British government, Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore except Brunei caused the matter can not be avoided. The desire for forming a state called MALAYSIA is achieved on 16 September 1963.